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Lunyu Wei Zheng 4-8 Summary

Cambridge Chinese Classics

2-4. 子曰:“吾十有五而志於學,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳順,七十而從心所欲,不逾矩。”

翻译:

孔子说:“我十五岁立志于学习;三十岁能够自立;四十岁能不被外界事物所迷惑;五十岁懂得了天命;六十岁能正确对待各种言论,不觉得不顺;七十岁能随心所欲而不越出规矩。” (杨伯峻《论语译注》)
The Master said, “At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning. “At thirty, I stood firm. “At forty, I had no doubts. “At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven. “At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth. “At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right.” (translation by James Legge)

讨论及感想:

吾十有五而志於學

这里的“学”指大学。古时男子十五岁称束发。《大戴礼记》“束发而就大学,学大艺焉,履大节焉。”
关于古时大学与小学的区别,说见古时的大学与小学
三十而立
“立”,冯友兰说是能循礼而行。《论语》第20篇尧曰篇
四十而不惑

五十而知天命

六十而耳順
“耳順”,可以理解为个人修行成熟,没有不顺耳之事。逆耳之言,詈骂之事都无所谓,无所违碍于心。

七十而從心所欲,不逾矩

2-5 孟懿子問孝。子曰:“無違。”樊遲御,子告之曰:“孟孫問孝於我,我對曰‘無違’。”樊遲曰:“何謂也?”子曰:“生,事之以禮;死,葬之以禮,祭之以禮。”

翻译:

孟懿子问什么是孝,孔子说:“孝就是不要违背礼。”后来樊迟给孔子驾车,孔子告诉他:“孟孙问我什么是孝,我回答他说不要违背礼。”樊迟说:“不要违背礼是什么意思呢?”孔子说:“父母活着的时候,要按礼侍奉他们;父母去世后,要按礼埋葬他们、祭祀他们。” (杨伯峻《论语译注》)
Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “It is not being disobedient.” Soon after, as Fan Ch’ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, “Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-’not being disobedient.’” Fan Ch’ih said, “What did you mean?” The Master replied, “That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety.”(translation by James Legge)

讨论及感想:

2-6 孟武伯問孝。子曰:“父母唯其疾之憂。”

翻译:

孟武伯向孔子请教孝道。孔子说:“对父母,要特别为他们的疾病担忧。(这样做就可以算是尽孝了。)” (杨伯峻《论语译注》)
Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick.”(translation by James Legge)

讨论及感想:

2-7 子游問孝。子曰:“今之孝者,是謂能養。至於犬馬,皆能有養;不敬,何以別乎?”

翻译:

子游问什么是孝,孔子说:“如今所谓的孝,只是说能够赡养父母便足够了。然而,就是犬马都能够得到饲养。如果不存心孝敬父母,那么赡养父母与饲养犬马又有什么区别呢?” (杨伯峻《论语译注》)
Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “The filial piety nowadays means the support of one’s parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?”(translation by James Legge)

讨论及感想:

2-8 子夏問孝。子曰:“色難。有事弟子服其勞;有酒食先生饌,曾是以為孝乎?”

翻译:

子夏问什么是孝,孔子说:“(当子女的要尽到孝),最不容易的就是对父母和颜悦色,仅仅是有了事情,儿女需要替父母去做,有了酒饭,让父母吃,难道能认为这样就可以算是孝了吗?” (杨伯峻《论语译注》)
Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?”(translation by James Legge)

讨论及感想: