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Lunyu Xue Er 3-8 Summary

Cambridge Chinese Classics

1.3 子曰:“巧言令色,鮮矣仁。”

译文

孔子说:“花言巧语,伪善的面貌,这种人,‘仁德’是不会多的。”
The Master said, “Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue.”
1.4 曾子曰:“吾日三省吾身。為人謀而不忠乎?與朋友交而不信乎?傳不習乎?”

译文

曾子说:“我每天多次自己反省:替别人办事是否尽心竭力了呢?同朋友往来是否诚实呢?老师传授我的学业是否复习了呢?”
The Philosopher Tsang said, “I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher.”
1.5 子曰:“道千乘之國,敬事而信,節用而愛人,使民以時。”

译文

孔子说:“治理具有一千辆兵车的国家,就要严肃认真地对待工作,信实无欺,节约费用,爱护官吏,役使老百姓要在农闲时间。”
The Master said, “To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons.”

讨论及感想(3-5章):

第3章,孔子批评“巧言令色”,就是批评那些只注意表面而忽视内在之本的人。他强调为人做事必须要务本,要发自内心,不要过分于言与色的矫饰。
第4章曾子讲修身,强调要时常反省自己。关于“三省吾身”之“三”是实指还是虚指,大家表达了不同看法。有人认为这里是实指“三次”(朱熹持该观点)。有人则认为是虚指,意为“多次”(杨伯峻持该观点)。
其中“傳不習乎”之“传”字可能要多重意义。可能指“老师传给自己的学问”要温习、实习(朱熹、杨伯峻的观点),也可能是说“自己作为老师传授给他人的学问”自己也需要温习、实习(钱穆《论语新解》的观点),要律己。
第5章孔子谈政治,如何治理国家。

1. 6 子曰:“弟子,入則孝,出則悌,謹而信,汎愛眾,而親仁,行有餘力,則以學文。”

译文

孔子说:“后生小子,在父母跟前,就孝顺父母;离开自己房子,便敬爱兄长;寡言少语,说则诚实可信,博爱大众,亲近有仁德的人。这样躬行实践之后,有剩余力量,就再去学习文献。”
The Master said, “A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies.”
1. 7 子夏曰:“賢賢易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;與朋友交,言而有信。雖曰未學,吾必謂之學矣。”

译文

子夏说:“对妻子,重品德,不重容貌;侍奉爹娘,能尽心竭力;服事君上,能豁出生命;同朋友交往,说话诚实守信。这种人,虽说没学习过,我一定说他已经学习过了。”
Tsze-hsia said, “If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.”
1. 8 子曰:“君子不重則不威,學則不固。主忠信,無友不如己者,過則勿憚改。”

译文

孔子说:“君子,如果不庄重,就没有威严;卽使读书,所学的也不会巩固。要以忠和信两种道德为主。不要跟不如自己的人交朋友。有了过错,就不要怕改正。”

The Master said, “If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.
“Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
“Have no friends not equal to yourself.
“When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them.”

讨论及感想(6-8章):

第6章谈德行,孔子认为德行优先于学文。根据语境,这一章所提的这些品德有推进,从孝悌到谨信,到泛爱众,再到亲仁。
对于“泛爱众”,大家有不同观点。有人认为这体现了孔子的博爱思想。不过有人认为这里体现的对大众之爱其实是很有限的。这种观点认为,孔子所说的这种泛爱更强调对人基本的同情和怜悯,这种爱的程度是低于对父母兄弟之爱的。也就是说,孔子对人的爱是有差异的,对身边亲近之人更深,而对离自己疏远之人则弱,这种爱是有差序的。这种泛爱不同于墨子的“兼爱”,也不同于西方启蒙思想中的“博爱”。
关于这章的“入”与“出”二字,大家理解也不同。一种赞同杨伯峻的说法。(入、出——《礼记·内则》:“由命士以上,父子皆异宫”,则知这里的“弟子”是指“命士”以上的人物而言。“入”是“入父宫”,“出”是“出己宫”。)另一种观点认为,“入”指在家,故“入则孝”指在家尊重父母老人。“出”指离开家,故“出则悌”指出门尊重兄长,即比自己年长者和上级。这里“入則孝,出則悌”强调无论在家或不在家,均长幼有序。
第7章讲各种品德,对父母、君上、朋友等等,这是“学”之基础。大家对“賢賢易色”一句讨论很多。有人赞同杨伯峻等的观点,认为这是说夫妻关系,意思是“对妻子,重品德,不重容貌”。很多人认为应该遵从本意,即 “用尊贵优秀品德的心来交换(或者改变)爱好美色的心。”对于“色”字,大家也有讨论。很多人认为这不仅仅指“美色”,应该泛指“表面的东西”(appearance)。

第8章讲“君子”之德,须庄重,其中尤以忠信两点最为重要,另外还要善于交友并知错能改。

有人问第一篇《学而》是否有明显的主题。根据朱熹的解释,本篇的主题是“务本”,即教人做事做人的根本,有些道理。